Tactics and Vectors 98/99


Table of  Contents

Great Circle Hypotheis  

Magnetoclinic Hypothesis

Magnetic-Latitude Hypothesis

Compass Bearings Hypothesis

Suns' Azimuth Hypothesis

Expansion-Contraction Hypothesis

Always Advance Hypothesis

Never Go Back Hypothesis




A Theoretical Kiepenheuer, Schmidt-Koenig, and Gibo, Magnetoclinic, Magnetic Latitude, late Summer and Fall Migration Route for Monarch Butterflies in Southeast Australia
K/S-K/and Gibo Magnetoclinic route in Australia
Drawing by Diane Scott


  • Joined arrows indicate one possible K/S-K/G Magnetoclinic, Magnetic Latitude, late summer and fall migration route.
  • Individual arrows located on and south of the -63 isocline of magnetic inclination and on the -57 isocline, indicate local K/S-K Magnetoclinic routes.
  • Arrows centred on the 61 isocline and the three arrows located between the 61 and 57 isoclines indicate local K/S-K/G Magnetoclinic, Magnetic Latitude, routes.
  • All other lines, graphics, and numbers along margins same as in drawing of Kiepenheuer and Schmidt-Koenig Magnetoclinic late summer and fall migration route.


  1. Monarch butterflies that migrate are assumed to be attempting to carry out the eastern North America pattern of migration on the wrong continent. Because of the properties of the magnetic field in the region, they end up trapped against the South Pacific Ocean until their preferred direction reverses in the spring.
  2. Reversing the K/S-K/G migration route in the spring would direct the butterflies inland, particularly migrants that start to the north of approximately the 60 isocline of magnetic inclination.