Tactics and Vectors 98/99


Table of  Contents

Great Circle Hypotheis  

Magnetoclinic Hypothesis

Magnetic-Latitude Hypothesis

Compass Bearings Hypothesis

Suns' Azimuth Hypothesis

Expansion-Contraction Hypothesis

Always Advance Hypothesis

Never Go Back Hypothesis




A Theoretical Kiepenheuer, Schmidt-Koenig, and Gibo, Magnetoclinic, Magnetic Latitude, Spring Migration Route for Eastern Population of Monarch Butterflies.
Center of Overwintering Sites used as Starting Point.

spring magnetoclininc route
Drawing by Diane Scott


  • Joined arrows indicate one possible K/S-K/G Magnetoclinic, Magnetic Latitude, spring migration route from overwintering sites.
  • Except for reversed polarity, individual arrows are the same as in the drawing of the K/S-K/G Magnetoclinic, Magnetic Latitude, late summer and fall migration route.
  • All other lines, graphics, and numbers along margins are the same as in the drawing of the Kiepenheuer and Schmidt-Koenig Magnetoclinic late summer and fall migration route.


  1. Unless the preferred direction of monarch butterflies are rotated counterclockwise early in the return migration by some unknown mechanism, the K/S-K/G route will lead them to what would seem to be a very dangerous crossing of a large section of the Gulf. Two meteorological phenomenon, the prevailing easterlies though the Gulf and the sea breeze front, could redirect the migrants inland. However, both are unreliable on a day to day basis.