ANT405Y:  Technology, Society and Culture    2007-2008
University of Toronto, Mississauga,  Heather M.-L. Miller

Course Projects -- Information for all stages

I. Topic paragraph: Summarize the topic you will address in a paragraph or two.  
   *Be sure to include the area of world, time period, material and/or technology, and
   *whether you will do a replication or an experiment (or both)
   *Be sure you have both a topic of social interest  AND a topic of hands-on work  (hands-on will inform your investigation of social importance of technology, but will not be sufficient; you will need literature research too).   For ideas about a topic of social interest -- see future and past readings, and ask for help.        
    *Please provide any references you have found; this helps me to understand your topic, and also tells me what literature you have found, and what you may be missing.  Be sure to give the full citations for the source(s), using the American Antiquity or American Anthropologist format.
    *You must type this paragraph, paying attention to spelling, grammar and clarity of writing.  It will also allow me to give you feedback on your topic and references, before you start down the wrong track.  It is to your advantage to summit a well thought out, well researched paragraph.

DUE NOV.  28
II. Annotated Bibliography:  In proper bibliographic format, list and annotate the books, articles, films, websites, and other sources that you have found to date for your project.  You may include any relevant readings assigned for class.
--Your entries must be CONCISE (points will be taken off for unnecessary wordiness) yet provide an informative summary.  
--Your bibliography should be relatively complete and represent informed library and scholarly research abilities.  If you need advice on searching, please ask!
--See the handout from the U of T New College Writing Centre for more information on annotated bibliographies, then use the guidelines below for specific requirements.  The "Checklist for Critique"� handout from Tom Klubi of the Academic Skills Centre may also be helpful

* For this class, EACH annotation should include the following information.
--The central thesis of the work (the author's main claim or purpose); if there are two main theses, list both, but try to keep to a minimum.
--If the central thesis of the work is not relevant to your research, but a portion of the article is, include a summary of the theme/thesis of the relevant section of the work.
--The data presented or used by the author.
--The intended audience of the work (researchers/scholars, school children, amateur crafters, professional artists, etc.).
--The relevance or usefulness of this particular work to your project topic; this may also include comparisons with other works in your bibliography, and/or it may include your critique of the author's conclusions.

**Overall, you should have a few sentences describing the content of the work (theses, data), and a few sentences evaluating it.  

*Do not use a cover page (save paper!).  Instead, put your name, date, and the course in the top left corner, and then put a centered title below it.  The title should be "Annotated Bibliography on . . . .(your topic)"�.   
*Be sure to use either American Antiquity or American Anthropologist format for your references. Cite the work fully, then begin your annotation on the next line. Put a blank line between each entry.
*Single-space or 1.5 space your bibliography entries.
*You may NOT use direct quotes in an annotated bibliography.  Please see below under "Final Paper:  Citations"� for instructions on paraphrasing.   You should not use citations within your annotation either, although if necessary you can indicate page numbers in parentheses after the relevant sentence (p. 347).  Note that for the remaining submissions, you must use the proper American Antiquity or American Anthropologist citation format -- no commas after the year!!  (see below, "Final Paper: Citations"�).

III. Outline of Project: This assignment is intended to make certain that you have thought out your entire project BEFORE you begin your replication or experiment and your writing.  If you plan to do your replication/experiment over break, you should provide at least a rough version of part A. of this assignment to the instructor for feedback BEFORE the holidays.   
The Outline consists of two parts; how closely they are related will depend on your project.

A. Outline of production process or experiment:  Be sure to get feedback on your project overview before you start work.  This should be a description of the expected process of your replication or experiment.  It can be either written in outline form (bulleted, etc.), or presented as a production process diagram (flowchart), as in the examples provided in class.   The latter format (diagram) is preferred.  
This diagram or outline should include:  
     -Raw materials, tools, products & by-products needed for each stage of production
     -Recording tools & methods for each stage (photos showing process as well as objects;
    measurements; etc.)

The outline will help you to organize your thoughts, plan your time, and have your materials, tools, recording systems and measurements all planned and accounted for ahead of time, so you will have fewer surprises along the way.
You should think NOW about taking pictures of intermediate stages of construction of your object, which you can use to illustrate your paper as well as your poster presentation. Or you can create unfinished examples of various stages of production of the object, and show all of these examples together in final photographs.

**Your TA and I will be able to solve potential problems ahead of time if we can give you feedback on this well before you begin your production.
**With advance notice, I can arrange the loan of a digital camera for anyone who needs it.

B. Overview of Final Essay.   It is to your advantage to provide as much of an outline of your final paper as you can at this point.  
Please outline the structure of what you plan to present, using the structure specified for the Final Paper below.
Be sure to follow the instructions below under "Organization of Paper"� for this part of your outline, or you will lose marks.   Your outline should be hierarchically arranged, with each section labelled as to its function and content.  Any section that is subdivided should have at least two sub-parts. You may use words and phrases instead of complete sentences, but the information to be covered in each section of the outline must be clear!  This outline should allow me to follow the basic structure and argument of your paper.  
If you do not know how to write a hierarchically arranged outline, be sure to get help on this ahead of time!

DUE for printing on MARCH 5     -   PRESENTED in class on MARCH 12
IV. Poster Presentations on Project:  You will design a poster for presentation of the main thesis and points of your project (both the replication/experiment and the wider implications).  The posters will be presented to the class on March 12, and to other audiences later in the term if you wish.  We may be able to turn these posters into web pages for a course "virtual museum"�, so be sure to have proper attributions for any illustrations!

Use the feedback on your Outline (above) and the discussion of what to include in posters and in your final paper (below) as guidelines. Try out your presentation on friends, family, roommates.  If they can follow it without having taken this class, it's probably a good presentation.

Please do not feel shy about asking for help and feedback before you have to present this poster; I imagine few of you have ever done a poster before.
We will arrange to have your posters printed at UTM; the cost will be about $35 per poster, and I will see if I can get partial reimbursement for you (no promises, but I'll try).

Content:  I will look for much the same sort of information as I have requested for your paper, although not necessarily presented in the same way, and not in as much detail.  You may organize the poster as appropriate for your topic, but here is an example of one way to proceed.  **Note that you will only have a few sentences (at most) for each section!

You can use visual aids to cut down the amount of space you have to devote to explaining the production process -- flowcharts can help a lot with this, especially ones with pictures instead of words.  And pictures or sketches can truly be worth the proverbial thousand words.

(1) Start with an introductory statement telling us your topic, then give us some background about where and when these objects were used, and why this technology is/was important.  Think about:  what (is your topic) -- who, where, when (used the objects) -- why (were they used and why were they important to this society).
(2) Then focus on how the objects were made -- the technology of production.  Go through step by step (would a flow chart of some kind be helpful here?  only use one if you think it would help people follow your explanation), and explain throughout how you differed from the authentic methods, or if you had to make educated guesses about the technique of any particular step.  Some of you may also need to present information about the use of your object.  
(3) Conclude with a statement about your results, particularly what you found out by actually making and/or using the object (or at least trying to) rather than just reading about the technology (if nothing, be brave and tell us that!).  You may want to discuss the why of this object (above) here rather than in your introduction.

The relative length of time you spend on section 1  vs. section 2 will depend on your particular project -- some of you are focusing mostly on production techniques (section 2), while others are focusing on the role or use of the technologies or objects in the society (section 1 and/or 3).

Many thanks to Deb Foran at the Robert Gillespie Academic Skills Centre for the basic text for the following sections on Aims and on Design.

Aims of Poster Presentations. Your primary aim with a poster is to present information on a specific topic and come to some conclusions.  In creating and designing your poster you should have one overriding question in mind:  what is the purpose of this poster?  You must take your audience into account and use appropriate language.  Your audience has to be able to understand the information and conclusions you are presenting.  Keep in mind that your poster should be self-sufficient.  Someone should only approach you with questions if they want further details, and not because they don't understand something.

Details: The title of the poster and your name should be at the top and easily visible, and the course number and/or name (ANT405: Technology, Society and Culture), date (2007-2008), and affiliation (Anthropology, University of Toronto at Mississauga) should be displayed where they are easy to find, although they should not be as prominent as the title and your name.  

The final poster must easily fit onto a 1 meter by 2 meter poster (or smaller).  As a starting guideline, the text of the poster should be no more than 2 pages;  the bibliography and images are in addition to this, but images should be carefully chosen and kept to the minimum needed to make your points.  BE SURE TO INCLUDE PROPER CITATIONS in the text and for the illustrations (as you would for a paper), so you are not plagiarizing!!!

**We will have a class demonstration and (hopefully) some computer lab time for you to actually work on creating your posters in Powerpoint.  All photographs and drawings will need to be digital; we can help you create digital drawings if you let us know what you want to do in advance.

Design:  Here are 4 basic guidelines to follow when constructing your poster:
(1) Decide on your conclusions and build your poster around them.
(2) Make sure that the message you are presenting is clear.  To ensure the clarity of your message use short, direct sentences.
(3) Your poster should make a visual impact.
(4) A good poster presents the right combination of text and images.  Your text should not overwhelm the poster.  It should however complement the images you choose and refer to these images.  Your images are there to provide necessary information, information that is better communicated by visuals (maps, charts, pictures, drawings) than by text.  Your images are not just decoration!

Fonts:  Posters should always use simple, easy-to-read fonts.  The most common are sans-serif fonts like Arial and related fonts, Helvatica, and Geneva.  You can make use of Bold, Italics, Underlining, CAPITALS, Different Sizes and Different Fonts for emphasis.  Copperplate, Comic Sans, Textile and other simple fonts make good fonts for titles and special emphasis.  Do NOT use script or elaborate fonts (like Brush Script) in a presentation; these are too hard to read!
Questions to ask yourself about fonts:  Are parts of the letters not legible? Does the text not stand out enough?

Colour Schemes:   
Backgrounds should be plain, so as not to distract the reader.   For printed poster design, please use dark type on a light background for your main text.  Be careful about your use of colour within the text for the same reason -- yellow prints out poorly.  This is OK if it is a minor part of your page -- titles, emphasis, and so forth.   Remember that colour can be distracting if you use too many colours, especially in combination with photographs or drawings.

Overall, the colours of your poster should be pleasing to the eye while drawing the audiences attention to certain key areas.  It is the combination of certain colours that make something attractive or striking.  Always keep the colour wheel in mind when deciding on a colour scheme.  
--Analogous colours are any 3 colours that are side-by-side on the colour wheel.  They will look good together, but will not draw your audience's attention to anything in particular.
--Complementary colours are any 2 colours that are directly opposite each other on the colour wheel.  By using complementary colours you can immediately draw your audiences attention to a specific piece of text or an image.  Note that the human eye is drawn to RED first.

Color Wheel image

(The colour wheel is available in colour on the class web-page, but I won't spend your tuition money on colour handouts.)

More tips on design will be provided throughout the semester; write them at the end of this handout so you can keep them all in one place.  

Bring this handout to every class!!

DUE March 26
V. Draft of Papers:  See below for information about the expected format and content of the final papers, and produce a draft as close to these requirements as possible.

Once you produce your first draft, re-read it to be sure that it will be clear to anyone who has not read the material or been in the class.  Ask your roommate or your family to read it.  In other words, do not "write for the instructor", but expect that your reader will need basic explanations and information.    Be sure to:  
--Carefully describe specific examples from your reading and research.  
--Include definitions of any archaeological or anthropological terms you use (and you will need to use several).  Acceptable sources for definitions include anthropological encyclopedias (NOT Wikipedia) or dictionaries or textbooks -- the library has several on reserve.
--As you write, insert citations and accumulate a References Cited list, in the format specified below.

Writing Style
Now that you have a draft of your paper, you can focus on writing style.
--Correct your grammar.
--Untangle complex sentences -- break them into two sentences, or remove unnecessary phrases.
--Avoid use of the passive tense.  If this is difficult for you, get advance help.
--It is now perfectly acceptable in anthropology to use "I" in published papers, and it helps me to understand which are your own ideas, and which are from your reading.
--Be careful to identify ideas from others (see Citations), so you don't commit plagiarism.
--Introduce your own ideas, where appropriate.
--Identify the topic sentences of your paragraphs in the body of your paper and see that they match the summary of your main points, both in the introduction and conclusion.
--Be sure to check for consistency in your introduction and concluding statements.  Write smooth transitional sentences and paragraphs.
--Write a title that is descriptive of the paper's main topic, and include your name, the date, and the course.  These should be at the top of page 1 -- I prefer that you do not have a separate title page, to conserve paper.
--Don't forget to spell-check and number your pages!
--Please carefully review the logical flow of your ideas, from your introduction, through the body of the paper, to the conclusion.  This is often the main difference between an excellent (A) paper and a good (B) paper.  You will be marked on writing style, grammar and spelling as well as content.

NOTE:  Drafts must be double-spaced, 12 point font with 1 inch margins

VI. Final Papers: ALL SUBMISSIONS MUST BE TYPED, double-spaced, 12 point font with 1 inch margins; the expected length for the final essay is 25-35 pages, not including tables, charts, and detailed records of replicative or experimental procedure in Appendices.

Content and Structure(Also see the section under Poster Presentations above.)  
I expect you to include the following sections in your paper:

-- A formal introduction with your thesis, explaining the aim of your project and an overview of the body of the paper (what you are going to tell us).

Then in an order appropriate to your particular project:
-- Background/History section to place the technology in space (have a map if appropriate) and time.  As appropriate, explain just a little about the society who used it (especially if focusing on one group).  As for your presentations, think about  who, where, when (used the objects) and why (were they used and why were they important to this society). 

--  Data.  For those doing archaeologically-related projects, explain the archaeological finds and/or data, and how these relate to your replication efforts.  For those doing ethnographically or historically (textually) based projects, explain the sources you used.
-- Description of Replication/Experiment.  Describe your replication or experiment, if central to your paper.  (Papers more focused on social issues can place the majority of this section in an Appendix at the end of the paper.)  Describe the reconstruction of the production process as gathered from various sources.  For any steps for which you could not find information, explain what you decided to do, and how you chose this approach (your reasoning).  Be sure to note any modifications you had to make to this process (what you actually did), such as using modern tools.  Note that I do NOT expect you to detail every step of the entire production process in the paper, but only those steps appropriate to your project aims.  I DO expect you to include a FLOWCHART and drawings or photos, as you did for the labs.  You can either put these in the text, or number them and put them at the end -- but be sure to reference them at the appropriate point in the text.

--Results / Social importance.  If appropriate for your topic, discuss your (experimental) results and their implications for your topic.  Be sure your argument is logical and well-supported by your data, both from literature and your own experience. Be sure to make it clear how your experimental or replicative work relates to or informs on your larger project.
For papers focused more on social or cultural issues, discuss this information here in more detail than you did in your Background.  How did your replicative work relate to these issues (if they did)?  Again, be sure your argument is logical and well grounded in the information you have.

-- Summarize your paper's main points, including information from research and from hands-on replication.  Explain again either the importance of this technology in the past and/or the importance of your approach to understanding this technology.  Be sure to show a logical progression from your data to your thesis, which should be stated here.
You should NOT have any new material in the summary, just a concise restatement of the main points of the paper.

Writing Style:  Review the tips under "V. Draft of Papers"� above.

Citations and Referencing:  Be sure to say where your information comes from.  You must cite your source whether or not you directly quote the words of that source.  In academic writing, anything that is not general knowledge, but rather comes from your reading (in this course or outside of it), and everything/idea that is distinctively the work of a particular person gets a citation.

The citation is placed in the text immediately after the material used. This is the case whether an actual quote is given, or whether you are just giving credit to an author for information or an idea.  The citation should include the author and date, and in many cases, a page number.  You always need the page number if you are using a quote or specific data. You can use just the author and date if you are referring to a general idea that occurs throughout the work.

The citation is part of the sentence, so the punctuation comes after, like this (Smith 2001:370). Or you can move the author's name to the front and just enclose date and page in parentheses.  For the Style Guide we will use, always put the date & page immediately after the author's name.  Do not use a comma.  
For example:   Smith (2001:370) provides new data about the origins of agriculture in Ontario.
If you actually quote material from a source, be sure to use quotation marks.  Quotes longer than two lines must be block indented and single spaced, and in that case no quotation marks are used.

Use quotes sparingly, limiting their use to particularly apt statements that are ideal for the point you wish to make.  For the most part, you should be paraphrasing the materials you read; that is, you should re-state the points in your own words.  This involves more than just changing a few words or omitting portions of a sentence.  Such changes are tantamount to plagiarism -- see the guide to plagiarism at  However, even well-paraphrased material should be cited, as indicated above.  Here's an example of a quote:  
"Digging these tombs would have required massive co-ordinated labor, and since
many of the individuals buried in the tombs are elites bedecked with exotic
ornaments and surrounded by fineware ceramics and figurines, it seems clear that
these were built to house elites who were capable of amassing and controlling a
large labor pool" (Peregrine 2003:230-231).
And a paraphrase:  These tombs were likely built for elites who controlled a large labour pool, as a great deal of labour would have been needed to dig the tombs, and to supply the exotic ornaments and fineware ceramics and figurines found in them (Peregrine 2003:230-231).

I still cite Peregrine, even though I don't quote him directly, because this was not my own conclusion -- I got this idea from reading his textbook.  I provide the page numbers so that it will be easy for the reader to find this reference, if desired.  Note that when I directly quote Peregrine, I leave the American spelling (labor), but when I paraphrase, I use the Canadian spelling (labour).  Also note that quotes that are 2 lines or longer are indented, while paraphrases are not.

References Cited/ Bibliography:    It is very important to provide the necessary information so that other people can find the sources of your information.  This usually includes the authors, dates, titles, publishers, and places of publication.   For this paper, I want you to provide a  list of References Cited; that is, only list the references you actually cite in your paper, not all of the materials you may have found or consulted or that exist on the topic (a bibliography).

Many conventions exist for the way references are formatted, and most publishers specify the model they want. In North American archaeology, the format developed by the journal American Antiquity is frequently used.  You may also use the American Anthropologist format, if you prefer.  I provide some examples below in American Antiquity style, and you can look at the American Antiquity Style Guide ( for more details.  If you have trouble with particular sources and don't know what to do with them, ASK ME!  Especially ask for help with websites or other strange materials.

References Cited
Kamp, Kathryn   
     1998  Life in the Pueblo:  Understanding the Past Through Archaeology. Waveland Press,
      Inc., Prospect Heights, Illinois.

Thomas, David Hurst
     1999  Archaeology. Down to Earth.  Second Edition. Harcourt Brace & Company, Orlando,

Smith, Robin
     1998  Citing Sources in Anthropology Papers. Journal of Academic Skills 27(4):20-29.

Miller, Heather M.-L.
     1997  Pottery Firing Structures (Kilns) of the Indus Civilization During the Third Millennium
     B.C. In  Prehistory & History of Ceramic Kilns, edited by Prudence Rice and W. David
     Kingery, pp. 41-71.  Ceramics & Civilization Series, Volume VII.  American Ceramic
     Society, Inc., Columbus, Ohio.

Tamakoshi, Laura Zimmer
      1997  Fieldwork: The Anthropologist in the Field. Electronic document,, accessed March 8.