Fall 2004, Anthropology, UTM
Course Web Page:
Lecture:  Tuesdays 1:00-3:00 pm, Room 172 North Building

Dr. Heather M.-L. Miller
Office:  208 North Building                              Email:  
hmiller "at"
Phone:  905 828-3741                                     Office Hour :  Tuesday 3-4 and by appointment

Course Description
       This is an exciting time to study South Asian archaeology, given the wealth of new material available.  We will survey the archaeology of prehistoric and historic South Asia using a comparative framework to examine classic examples of hunter-gatherer groups, early villages, urban settlements, regional polities, and large empires.  However, the study of ancient South Asia also offers opportunities to look at political, social, ritual and economic approaches quite different from those employed in other regions.  South Asia is particularly interesting as a cross-roads location, a place where various cultural traditions met, and became something new.  More attention will be paid to the northwestern portion of South Asia, as considerably more research has been done in this area, but we will make an effort to cover other areas as well, to reflect the rapid pace of new research.
       We will move chronologically through South Asian prehistory and history, from the Palaeolithic to the late Medieval period.  However, an important theme in South Asia is the contemporaneity of groups of people with very different lifestyles -- hunter-gatherers participated in trading networks with town and city dwellers, pastoral nomads moved through settled village regions during their annual migrations.  There is not a one-way 'progression' from hunting to urbanization, for any time period or region.
        The politicization of South Asian prehistory and history has been extremely important both in interpretations of the past and in modern political events.  Cases such as the debate over the identity of the Harappans and the nature of the Muslim invasions will be evaluated from both an archaeological and a political perspective.

Required Course Materials 
No current textbook exists for South Asian Archaeology.  Instead: 

(1) Links have been provided on the course website to readings in journals, wherever possible.  You may download and read on the computer or print out, as you wish. 
***If you wish to download these articles from home, you will have to get library clearance ahead of time - don't wait to take care of this!!  You will also have to look through the Harappa website articles on-line, since these will not download.

(2) A reader of the remaining articles assigned for this class is available for purchase at the UTM Copy Centre, near the Bookstore.  You will have to pay cash, about $40.
One copy of this reader will also be placed on reserve in the UTM Library.

Some additional materials for your projects are on reserve at the UTM Library.  You will also have to consult a number of obscure, difficult to access sources during your research for this class.  This means you will have to go downtown to Robarts library, and possibly even to the ROM libraries.  However, if you are having difficulties with finding particular sources, please check with me (after you have searched the library, but before you try Inter-Library loan), as I may have the source in my private library.

The marked work for this course will consist of:
(1) two non-cumulative tests, worth 25% each for a total of 50%;
(2) weekly quizzes on the readings, worth 10% total;
(3) two sets of site summaries, worth 20% total; and
(4) an article-review (like a book review, only reviewing an article), worth 20%.

Due to the lack of a textbook, and the rapidly occurring changes in South Asian archaeology, material from lectures will provide the majority of information for this class Ð if you miss class, be sure to get notes from at least one person.  If you are a poor note-taker, bring a tape-recorder, and I recommend that you contact the Academic Skills Centre for help with note-taking.  I will provide an outline of the material covered in each lecture on the class web site, but I will not provide full notes -- this is part of your education, learning how to organize and record orally-presented material.

SEE PAGE 3 "REGULATIONS" for details on late work, make-ups, citations, and other information.

The tests will include short answer and essay questions.  The questions will focus on your ability to summarize and analyze material about major issues, not on simple memorization (I assume you are able to do that).

Every week you will have a quiz at the beginning of class composed of true/false questions designed to reward those who do the readings assigned for that week.  The quizzes will test major points in the assigned reading (such as the topics referenced in the introductions, headings and conclusion), not minor details.  

There will be two sets of 3 site summaries, one set pre- or proto-historic, and one site of historic sites.  The sites will be assigned by the instructor, with different sites for each student.  You are encouraged to help each other look for sources, but the summaries must be written independently by each student.  See the Site Summaries handout.

You will critically review an article, using the content and format specified in the Article Review handout.  You will give a 5-minute presentation of your article on the day in which that topic is discussed, and will turn in your written review the following week.  In evaluating the article, you should include ideas from the assigned readings, lectures, and discussions.  You must turn in two copies of the article review; I will return one and keep the other.  (Link to articles for review)

Regulations for ANT316 Marked Work

1. WEEKLY QUIZZES:  No make-ups on quizzes will be allowed, under ANY circumstances.  Also, if you are late to class, you may not take the quiz, which will be given at the beginning of the class.  I will drop the two lowest of these marks for every student, so missing a class due to illness will not affect your final participation mark.

2. MISSED EXAMS:  Avoid missing exams;  the procedure for taking a make-up exam is strictly regulated by the university, and these policies will be followed in all cases.  See the procedure in Section 7.9 of the UTM Calendar for 2004-2005, under "General Regulations:  Term Tests".  I must have a doctor's note or similar documentation in order to schedule a make-up exam.  All make-up exams will be taken at the same time, 1 to 2 weeks after the missed exam.  Make-ups for the second exam MUST be taken before 14. Dec.  Note that make-up exams will be entirely essay format. 

3. Late assignments will have 20% of the total possible marks deducted per calendar day late, including weekend days.  10% will be deducted for assignments turned in after the first half-hour of class on the date due, even if the assignment is turned in on the due date.  It is your responsibility to turn in late assignments to the instructor, at my convenience.  You may NOT submit assignments by email.  Only the usual documented excuses (doctor's note, etc.) will be accepted to avoid late penalties. 

4. When you hand in your assignments of any kind, you must sign the submission form.  DO NOT submit your assignment to the secretary nor to anyone else in the Department of Anthropology. DO NOT slide your assignment under the instructor's office door.  The assignment has not been officially submitted until you sign the submission form.  You are also advised to make a copy of your assignments for yourself before submitting them.

5. You may work with other students in preparing for assignments, but what you submit must be your own work.   You are encouraged to discuss questions together, or share source materials, or recommend readings and web sites.   However, I will expect everyone in the class to have a different write-up; be especially careful to work ALONE on your final write-up. 

6. Please be especially careful to avoid plagiarism, which is a serious academic offence. Assignments in which plagiarism is detected will be severely penalized.  For more details, see Section 7.11 "Academic Honesty" and Section 11.2, the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters in the UTM Calendar for 2004-2005.  It is your responsibility to be familiar with this code, and adhere to it.  Be sure to read the link to the information on plagiarism on the website

7. Use the American Antiquity style (employed in your syllabus bibliography) for all citations & bibliographies turned in for this class.  Ask the instructor if you have any problems.

Course Schedule
(Full references and links for the Readings are provided below the schedule.)

Sept 14 Introduction to Course
Geography & Chronology
Sept 21 Choice of articles for review due (link to list)
Geography & Chronology completed
Archaeology & Politics in South Asia
Reader:  Gray; Silva
Web: Romey, Lahiri, Shaw, Pappu, Smith
Sept 28 Palaeolithic Traditions
Long-term Hunting & Gathering Traditions
Reader: Kenoyer, Possehl & Rissman, Kennedy, Kenoyer, Morrison
Web: Paddayya, Harappa web
Oct. 5 Food-Producing (Neolithic) Traditions
Indus Tradition:  Food-Producing Era
Reader: Kenoyer, Possehl & Rissman, Shaffer, Meadow, Fuller
Web: Lukacs
Oct 12 Last day to bring copy of article to class
Indus Tradition:

    Regionalization Era
    Integration Era (Indus Civilization)
Reader: Kenoyer, Shaffer, Shaffer & Lichtenstein, Mughal, Jansen
Web:  Begin Kenoyer
Oct 19     Integration Era (Indus Civilization) continued
Contemporaneous Groups
Reader: Vidale & Miller, Kenoyer
Web: Finish Kenoyer; Rissman, Clark, Franke-Vogt
Oct 26 Exam 1
Nov 2 Site Summary 1 due
Indus Tradition: Localization Era;
Questions of Decline and Migration;
Other Chalcolithic Traditions;
Vedic/Iron Age Polities;  Megaliths
Reader: Kenoyer, Shaffer, Kenoyer, Erdosy, Chakrabarti, Allchin extract
Web:  Possehl & Shinde
Nov 9 Second Integration Era (Late Iron Age/Early Historic):  Gangetic Valley Urbanization;
    Buddhism & Long-distance Trade;
    Mauryan Empire
Reader: Kenoyer, Allchin extracts, Smith, Barnes
Web: Morrison, Shaw, Barnes
Nov 16 Late Iron Age/Early Historic cont.  (3rd c BCE - 7/8th c CE):  Contacts with West and East -
            Traders, Invaders, Pilgrims;  
    Gupta Empire
Reader: Kenoyer, Allchin extracts, Fussman, Stein extract
Web: Abraham, Bellina
Nov 23 Early Medieval Period (7th - 14th c CE):
   Regionalization & Urbanization;
   Joining the Islamic World
Reader: Stein extracts, Vidale, Winke
Web: Mate
Nov 30 Site Summary 2 due
Empires of Medieval South Asia (14-18th c CE):
    The Deccani Sultanates & Vijayanagara;
    Successor States & Europeans
Reader:  Sinopoli, Habib
Web:  Sinopoli & Morrison, Lewis
Dec 7 Exam 2

(Note that the direct web links will only work if you are on-campus or authorized for downloading by the Univ. of Toronto library as a U of T member.)

Sept. 14:  No required reading.
Optional background in chronology (in reader or on reserve -- all will be assigned later): 

Kenoyer, J. M.  In preparation.  Chapter 2.  Historical Overview.  In Ancient South Asia, by J. M. Kenoyer, pp. 1-50.  Facts on File.  [READER -- courtesy of J.M. Kenoyer]

Shaffer, J. G.  1992.  The Indus Valley, Baluchistan and  Helmand Traditions: Neolithic through Bronze Age. In Chronologies in Old World Archaeology, 3rd edition, edited by R. W. Ehrich,  Vol. I pp. 441-452 & Vol. II p. 425 (map).  U. of Chicago Press, Chicago.  [READER]  (complete version with bibliography is on reserve)

Possehl, Gregory L. & Paul C. Rissman.  1992.  The Chronology of Prehistoric India:  From Earliest Times to the Iron Age. In Chronologies in Old World Archaeology, 3rd edition, edited by R. W. Ehrich,  Vol. I pp. 465-479 & Vol. II p. 447-452 (maps).  U. of Chicago Press, Chicago.  [READER]  (complete version with bibliography on reserve)

Sept. 21:  Archaeology & Politics in South Asia

Gray, Jonathan.  Downloaded Aug. 9, 2004, no date of posting.  Ancient City Found, Irradiated from Atomic Blast.  Website:      [READER, so we can make references to the same page numbers and lines in class]

Romey, Kristin M.  2004.  Flashpoint Ayodha.  Did Hindu hard-liners recruit archaeologists to rewrite history?  Archaeology 57(4):48-55.  
If you have trouble making the article links work (or if you are told there will be a charge), see Announcement on our CCNet page:

Lahiri, Nayanjot. 2000.  Archaeology and Identity in Colonial India.  Antiquity  74(285):687-692!xrn_42_0_A65802728?sw_aep=utoronto_main

Shaw, Julia.  2000.  Ayodhya's sacred landscape:  ritual memory, politics and archaeology 'fact'.  Antiquity  74(285):693-700!xrn_7_0_A65802730?sw_aep=utoronto_main

Pappu, Shanti.  2000.  Archaeology in Schools: An Indian Example.  Antiquity 74(285):485-486!xrn_12_0_A65802698?sw_aep=utoronto_main

Smith, Monica L.  2000.  Bangladesh: Building national identity through archaeology.  Antiquity 74(285):701-706.!xrn_44_0_A65802731?sw_aep=utoronto_main

Silva, Roland.  1989.  The Cultural Triangle of Sri Lanka.  In Archaeological Heritage Management in the Modern World, edited by Henry Cleere, pp. 221-226.  Unwin Hyman, London. [READER]

Sept. 28:  Palaeolithic Traditions;  Long-term Hunting & Gathering Traditions

Kenoyer, J. M.  Ancient South Asia manuscript, pp. 1-12, 16 (forging), 20 (foraging), 29, 31, 33, 36-37  [READER]

Possehl & Rissman  Ancient Chronologies paper, pp. 465-473 + maps  [READER]

Kennedy, K. A. R.  1992.  The Fossil Hominid Skull from the Narmada Valley: Homo erectus or Homo sapiens?  In South Asian Archaeology 1989, edited by C. Jarrige, pp. 145-152. Madison, WI, Prehistory Press.  [READER]

Paddayya, K., Richa Jhaldiyal & Michael D. Petraglia.  2000.  Excavation of an Acheulian workshop at Isampur, Karnataka (India).  Antiquity 74(286):751-752.!xrn_1_0_A69200009?sw_aep=utoronto_main

Kenoyer, J. M. 1992.  Socio-Ritual Artifacts of Upper Palaeolithic Hunter-Gatherers in South Asia. In South Asian Archaeology Studies, edited by G. L. Possehl, pp. 227-240. Oxford & IBH Pub. Co., New Delhi. [READER]

Biagi, Paulo.  1997.  The Rohri Flint Quarries.  Be sure to read all 3 pages of the essay and look at all 30 slides.

Morrison, Kathleen.  2002.  Introduction to Part I. South Asia.  In Forager-Traders in South and South-east Asia. Long Term Histories, edited by K. D. Morrison and Laura L. Junker, pp. 21-40.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  [READER]    

Oct. 5:  Food-Producing (Neolithic) Traditions;  Indus Tradition:  Food-Producing Era

Kenoyer, J. M.  Ancient South Asia manuscript, pp. 3, 12-17, 20-21, 30, 31, 33-34.

Possehl & Rissman in Chronologies, pp. 473-479 (skim sections on sites)  [READER]

Shaffer in Chronologies, pp. 441-444 + map (skim sections on sites) [READER]

Meadow, Richard H.  1996.  The origins and spread of agriculture and pastoralism in South Asia.  In The origins and spread of agriculture and pastoralism in Eurasia, edited by D. R. Harris, pp. 390-412.  Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. [READER]

Fuller, Dorian Q., Ravi Korisettar, and P.C. Venkatasubbaiah.  2001.  Southern Neolithic Cultivation Systems:  A Reconstruction based on Archaeobotanical Evidence.  South Asian Studies (17):171-187.  [READER]

Lukacs, John R.  1996.  Sex Differences in Dental Caries Rates with the Origin of Agriculture in South Asia.  Current Anthropology 37(1):147-153.

Oct. 12:  Indus Tradition:  Regionalization Era and Integration Era (Indus Civilization);

Kenoyer, J. M.  Ancient South Asia manuscript, pp. 3-4, 16-18, 21-22.

Shaffer in Chronologies, pp. 444-450 + map (skim sections on sites) [READER]

Shaffer, Jim G. & Diane A. Lichtenstein.  1989.  Ethnicity and Change in the Indus Valley Cultural Tradition.  In Old Problems and New Perspectives in the Archaeology of South Asia, edited by J. M. Kenoyer, pp. 117-126.  Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. [READER]

Mughal, M. Rafique.  1990.  Further Evidence of the Early Harappan Culture in the Greater Indus Valley: 1971-90.  South Asian Studies, Vol. 6:175-199.  [READER]
Jansen, M.  1993   Pre-, Proto-, Early-, Mature-, Urban-, Late-, Post-Harappan: Linearity, Multilinearity: "Babylonian Language Confusion" or Ideological Dispute? In South Asian Archaeology, 1991 , edited by A. J. Gail & G. J. R. Mevissen, pp. 135-148.  F. S. Verlag, Stuttgart.  [READER]

Begin to read   Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark.  1996.  Around the Indus in 90 Slides.  and choose 'essay'.  To be continued . . .

Oct. 19: Indus Tradition:  Integration Era continued; Contemporaneous Groups

Finish reading Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark.  1996.  Around the Indus in 90 Slides.  and choose 'essay'.  Read all 7 sections of the essay, using the 'text only' version if you get lost: (note the link to a detailed bibliography at the end of the text version). 

Vidale, Massimo & Heather M.-L. Miller.  2000.    In South Asian Archaeology 1997, edited by M. Taddei & G. De Marco, pp. 115-132.  Istituto Italiano per L'Africa e L'Oriente, Rome. [READER] 

Rissman, P. C.  1988.  Public Displays and private values: a guide to buried wealth in Harappan archaeology. World Archaeology 20 (2) : 209-227.

Clark, Sharri R.  2003.  Representing the Indus Body: Sex, Gender, Sexuality, and the Anthropomorphic Terracotta Figurines from Harappa.  Asian Perspectives 42(2):304-328.   (scroll down to correct article)

Kenoyer, J. M.  Ancient South Asia manuscript, pp. 3, 30 (Regionalization), 31-32 (Regionalization).  [READER]

Franke-Vogt, Ute.  2000.  Balochistan Archaeology.  then choose 'essay' and read essays 1, 2, and 6 (on the Kulli period), and look at the associated slides.  If you get lost, try looking at the print version (

Oct. 26:  Study for Exam

Nov. 2: Indus Tradition: Localization Era;  Questions of Decline and Migration; Other Chalcolithic Traditions; Vedic/Iron Age Polities; Megaliths

Kenoyer, J. M.  Ancient South Asia manuscript, pp. 19 and 22 first for Indus Localization, then pp. 37-39 (Regionalization) for Vedic polities of Gangetic plain, and finally pp. 3 (Megalithic), 14-15 (Megalithic), 34 (Regionalization)  [READER]

Shaffer in Chronologies, pp. 450-452 + map (skim sections on sites) [READER]

Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark.  1991.  The Indus Valley Tradition of Pakistan and Western India.  Journal of World Prehistory  5(4):331-385.  [You only need to read pp. 366-373, in the READER; however, the entire article is available in the UTM library stacks.]

Possehl, Gregory L. & Vasant Shinde (& staff writer?).  Posted June 3, 2003  Cache of seal impressions discovered in Western India offers surprising new evidence for cultural complexity in little-known Ahar-Banas Culture, circa 3000-1500 B.C.  University of Pennsylvania Museum:  Worldwide Research:  Expeditions, Research, & Discoveries:  Asia.  Website: .

Erdosy, G. 1995  Language, material culture and ethnicity: Theoretical perspectives. The Indo-Aryans in Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, edited by G. Erdosy, p. 1-31.  W. DeGruyter, Berlin.  [READER]

Kennedy, Kenneth A. R.  2000.  New Data for the Reassessment of Bio-Cultural Adaptations and Racial Affinities of Iron Age Populations of South India.  In South Asian Archaeology 1997, edited by M. Taddei & G. De Marco, pp. 617-631. Istituto Italiano per L'Africa e L'Oriente, Rome. [READER]

Chakrabarti, Dilip K.  1984-85  Iron and Urbanization: an examination of the Indian context. Puratattva No. 15:68-74.  [READER]

Extract from F.R. Allchin (editor). 1995.  The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia.  The Emergence of Cities and States.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  Read pp. 329-331 (middle) for today.  [READER]

Nov. 9: Second Integration Era (Late Iron Age/Early Historic):  Gangetic Valley Urbanization, Buddhism & Long-distance Trade; Mauryan Empire

Kenoyer, J. M.  Ancient South Asia manuscript, pp. 39, 34  [READER]

Extracts from F.R. Allchin (editor). 1995.  The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia.  The Emergence of Cities and States.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  Read pp. 331-335 (top) and pp. 116-122 (section by G. Erdosy, 'City States of North India & Pakistan') for today.  [READER]

Smith, Monica L.  2002.  The Role of Local Trade Networks in the Indian Subcontinent during the Early Historic Period.  Man and Environment XXVII(1):139-151.  [READER] 

Morrison, Kathleen.  1995.  Trade, Urbanism and Agricultural Expansion:  Buddhist Monastic Institutions and the State in the Early Historic Western Deccan.  World Archaeology 27(2):203-221.

Shaw, Julia.  2000.  Sanchi and its Archaeological Landscape: Buddhist Monasteries, Settlements and Irrigation Works in Central India.  Antiquity 74(286):775-776.!xrn_6_0_A69200022?sw_aep=utoronto_main

Barnes, Gina.  1995. An Introduction to Buddhist Archaeology.  World Archaeology 27(2):165-182.  (only need to read pp. 165-175 + photo p. 176).

Barnes, Gina.  1995.  Glossary of Selected Terms.  World Archaeology 27(2):183-184.  [READER]   (for your reference)

Nov. 16:  Late Iron Age/Early Historic continued (3rd c BCE-7/8th c CE):  Contacts with West and East - Traders, Invaders, Pilgrims;  Gupta Empire

Kenoyer, J. M.  Ancient South Asia manuscript, pp. 39-45  & review (focusing on South India):  pp. 3 (Megalithic), 14-15 (Megalithic), 34 (Regionalization).  [READER]

Extracts from F.R. Allchin (editor). 1995.  The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia.  The Emergence of Cities and States.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  Read pp. 335 and pp. 274-281 (section by D.K. Chakrabarti, 'Post-Mauryan States of Mainland South Asia, c. BC 185 - AD 320') -- use maps for reference for other readings; focus on main points, don't worry about individual ruler's names.  [READER]

Abraham, Shinu Anna.  2003.  Chera, Chola, Pandya: Using Archaeological Evidence to Identify the Tamil Kingdoms of Early Historic South India  Asian Perspectives 42(2):207-223.   (scroll down to correct article)

Fussman, Gerard.  1993.  Taxila: The Central Asian Connection.  In Urban Form and Meaning in South Asia: The Shaping of Cities from Prehistoric to Precolonial Times, edited by H. Spodek and D. M. Srinivasan, pp. 83-100.  National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.  [READER]

Stein, Burton.  1998.  Extracts from  A History of India.  Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.  Read pp. 95-100 'The Gupta Classical Pattern'  & see maps, pp. 42-43 (for reference for other readings also).  [READER]

Bellina, Berenice.  2003.  Beads, social change and interaction between India and South-east Asia.  Antiquity 77(296):285-297.!xrn_7_0_A105043892?sw_aep=utoronto_main

Nov. 23:  Early Medieval Period (7-14th c CE):  Regionalization & Urbanization;  Joining the Islamic World

Stein, Burton.  1998.  Extracts from  A History of India.  Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.  Read pp. 116-129 'Medieval Kingdoms' & see maps, pp. 108-110 (for reference for other readings also).  [READER]

Vidale, Massimo.  1994.  Passage to Nepal:  Archaeology of the Early State of Simraongarh.  In From Sumer to Meluhha:  Contributions to the Archaeology of South And West Asia in Memory of George F. dales, Jr., edited by J. M. Kenoyer, pp. 323-339.  Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. [READER]

Wink, Andre. 1990.  Extracts from Al-Hind.  The Making of the Indo-Islamic World.  Volume I:  Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th-11th Centuries.  E.J. Brill, Leiden.  Read p. 1-24, especially pp. 1-4 & 20-24.  [READER]  This extract is supplied to give you a glimpse of the integrated Muslim world system, and South Asia's part in it.

Mate, M.S.  1983.  Daulatabad:  Road to Islamic Archaeology in India.  World Archaeology 14(3):335-341.

Nov. 30:  Empires of Medieval South Asia (14-18th c CE):  The Deccani Sultanates & Vijayanagara;  Mughals; Successor States & Europeans

Sinopoli, C.M. and K.D. Morrison. 1995. Dimensions of Imperial Control: The Vijayanagara Capital.  American Anthropologist 97:83-96.

Sinopoli, C. M. 1994. Monumentality and Mobility in Mughal Capitals.  In Landscapes of Power, edited by K.D. Morrison.  Special Issue of Asian Perspectives  33:293-308. [READER]

Habib, Irfan.  2002.  The Economy.  In The Magnificent Mughals, edited by Z. Ziad, pp. 269-280.  Oxford University Press, Oxford.  [READER]

Lewis, Barry, & Channabasappa S. Patil.  2003.  Chitradurga: Spatial Patterns of a Nayaka Period Successor State in South India.  Asian Perspectives 42(2):267-286.   (scroll down to correct article)

Dec. 7:  Study for Exam